SEM showing fusion of 2 protoplasts

SEM showing fusion of 2 protoplasts

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Caption: Scanning electron micrograph showing the fusion of a pair of protoplasts from two leaf cells of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum. A protoplast is a cell which has been chemically treated to remove the tough outer cellulose wall, leaving only the delicate plasma membrane binding the cell contents together. Chemical stimulation causes the wall to regrow. Protoplast technology has enabled two types of genetic experimentation: nuclear fusion (seen here), where the cytoplasm & nuclei of two cells are chemically encouraged to fuse; & DNA microinjection, where selected genes are injected directly into a cell. Magnification: x320 at 35mm size, x2600 at 8x10-inch size. Reference: MICROCOSMOS, figure 6.3, page 110.

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Keywords: botanical science, botany, cell, cells, dna microinjection, genetic engineering (plant), nuclear fusion (cell), plant structure, plasma membrane, protoplast, scanning electron micrograph, sem

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