Electrical stimulation of facial muscles

Electrical stimulation of facial muscles

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Credit: SHEILA TERRY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Facial muscles being stimulated by a "reophore" (connecting wire of electric battery traversed by current) to demonstrate the mechanics of facial expression. Top left - normal. top right - joy, bottom left- ecstasy, bottom right - hatred. This technique was pioneered by French neurologist Duchenne in the 19th century.He used a rheophore to stimulate single muscles in order to study movements caused by the contraction of muscles, known as "localized faradization". He concluded that the origin of some muscular diseases e.g. Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy, is in muscle fibre rather than in neurological lesions as previously thought. He made a major contribution to the advancement of the science of muscular electrophysiology. His understanding of the conductivity of neural pathways was fundamental to the development of modern neurology.

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Keywords: 19th century, duchenne, duchenne's, emotions, facial expressions, facial muscles, faradization, french neurologist, localised faradization, muscular contractions, muscular dystrophy, muscular electrophysiology, neurological lesions, reophore, stimulation

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