Phrenology, satirical artwork

Phrenology, satirical artwork

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Credit: SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Phrenology. Satirical artwork showing animal-headed researchers measuring human skulls, one of which is labelled. The belief that variations in skull shape can be measured to deduce brain and personality traits is known as phrenology. It was proposed by the German physician Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828), who published his major work on it in 1819. He called it 'Schadellehre' (doctrine of the skull). This artwork, which dates from the 19th century, is from the German book 'Die Karikatur und Satire in der Medizin' (Caricature and Satire in Medicine, 1921) by the German art historian and physician Eugen Hollander (1867-1932).

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