A New System of Chemical Philosophy

A New System of Chemical Philosophy

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Credit: EMILIO SEGRE VISUAL ARCHIVES/AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

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Caption: A New System of Chemical Philosophy. Page from 'A New System of Chemical Philosophy' published by the British chemist, meteorologist and physicist John Dalton (1766-1844) in 1808, showing the arrangement of water atoms (spheres) in varying states. This publication outlined Dalton's theory that matter is made of small indivisible units called atoms, and how how it applies to chemical changes. Figs. 1 and 2 show water and ice respectively. Figs. 3 and 4 show that the angle is always either 60 or 120 degrees. Fig. 5 represents a spicule of ice formed upon sudden congelation of water cooled below freezing point. And Fig. 6 shows ice at the commencement of congelation.Restrictions:Restrictions:Restrictions:

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