Elm branches showing Dutch elm disease.

Elm branches showing Dutch elm disease.

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Caption: The branches of a tree with Dutch elm disease. This disease is carried by the elm-leaf beetle (Galeruca scanthomelaena) and by the long-horned beetle (Saperda tridentata). These bark-boring beetles are vectors of the fungus Ceratocystis ulmi, which is the cause of the disease. The sticky conidia of the fungus adhere to the fertilised female beetles and are deposited under the bark where they germinate. Infection spreads rapidly, but is confined to the water conducting vessels of the tree which become blocked. Yellowing and browning of foliage occurs followed by wilting, defoliation and finally the death of the tree.

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Keywords: botany, branches, ceratocystis ulmi, disease, diseased, diseases, dutch elm disease, nature, pathogens, pathology, plant, tree, worst invasive alien species

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