Aristotelian cosmology, 1560

Aristotelian cosmology, 1560

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Caption: Aristotelian cosmology. 16th-century diagram of heavenly spheres surrounding the Earth (centre). This is a classical geocentric Aristotelian system, with Earth, Water, Air and Fire, followed by the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the firmament of stars, the crystalline heaven, the primum mobile, and finally the empyrean heaven. This diagram is from 'De ratione' (1560) by the Italian mathematics lecturer Filippo Fantoni (circa 1530-1591). 'De ratione' summarised astronomical and geographical knowledge, covering classical and medieval authors, from Aristotle to Ptolemy to Johannes de Sacrobosco.

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