Sand dunes

Sand dunes

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Credit: PETER CHADWICK/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Coastline with sand dunes colonised by European marram grass (Ammophila arenaria). Marram grass is an important plant in sand dune ecosystems. Its roots stabilise the dunes, and rotting plant material allows colonisation by other species. European marram grass was introduced to South Africa, around 100 years ago, precisely for these reasons. However, there are now concerns that it is replacing native dune fauna.

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Keywords: africa, african, ammophila arenaria, beach, biological, biology, botanical, botany, coast, coastline, ecology, ecosystem, european, flora, geographical, geography, gouritz, grass, grasses, introduced, marram grass, nature, plant, sand dune, sea, south africa, species

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