Hammered shield lichen, SEM

Hammered shield lichen, SEM

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Caption: Hammered shield lichen. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a section through a hammered shield lichen (Parmelia sulcata). Lichens are organisms formed by the symbiotic association of a fungus (thin tubular structures) and an alga (green spheres) or cyanobacterium. The algal cells use photosynthesis to produce nutrients which are absorbed by fungal hyphae that surround and penetrate the algae. Fungal hyphae also absorb minerals from rainwater or acidic digestion of the substrate. Parmelia lichen are classified as foliose due to their flat appearance and leaf-like structures. Magnification: x480 when printed 10 centimetres wide.

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Keywords: alga, algae, biologicalplant, biology, botanical, botany, coloured, cross section, cyanobacteria, false-coloured, flora, foliose, fungi, fungus, green algae, hammered shield lichen, hypha, hyphae, leafy, lichen, lichens, microbiological, microbiology, mutualism, mycology, nature, parmelia sulcata, plant, scanning electron micrograph, scanning electron microscope, section, sectioned, sem, symbiosis, symbiotic, thallus

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