Coastal erosion. Houses located at the very edge of a cliff that has been eroded by the sea. The wooden bulwarks in the water at right have been unsuccessful in protecting this stretch of coastline. The cliff is comprised of sand, pebbles and marl (grey clay). This mixture is not resistant to erosion. Sea defences, such as the bulwarks, only provide a local solution to the problem of erosion. This is because sediment taken from one stretch of coastline is often deposited on another part, giving protection there. Photographed at Happisburg in Norfolk, UK. The bulwarks were built in 1959.
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