Sporangia and spores of the male fern

Sporangia and spores of the male fern

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Caption: Light micrograph of the sporangia (spore sacs) and spores of the "male fern", Dryopteris filix-mas. The sporangia of Dryopteris are borne on the undersides of the leaf fronds in brown kidney- shaped structures known as sori. Each sporangium is a biconvex capsule in which the mature spores lie freely. Five ruptured sporangia are seen here. The prominent yellow structure around the edge of each sporangium wall is a band of thick-walled cells called the annulus. As the mature sporangium dries, the tension in the walls of the annulus causes the sporangium to rupture, expelling the spores which are then distributed by the wind. Magnification: x100 at 35mm size.

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Keywords: annulus, botany, dryopteris filix-mas, fern, ferns, light micrograph, male, male fern, nature, plant, pteridophyte, pteridophytes, seed dispersal, sporangium, spore, spores, spores of

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