Liang Bua cave, Flores, Indonesia. Remains of Homo floresiensis were found in this cave in 2003. H. floresiensis is thought to have become extinct 12,000 years ago, and so co-existed with modern humans (Homo sapiens). It was a small hominid, measuring just over a metre tall and with a very small brain. It is thought that it was a descendant of H. erectus that underwent island dwarfism, a process where isolated species that lack predators and are constrained by limited resources evolve to become smaller.
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