Australopithecus reconstruction. Head and neck of the early hominid (Australopithecus, from 4-2 million years ago), as reconstructed by Dart in 1926. Dart discovered the first Australopithecus specimen in Taung, South Africa, in 1924. In this reconstruction, a thick adult neck is used, though the Taung specimen was considered to be a child. Such reconstructions were used to help decide the question of whether Australopithecus was an early hominid (somewhere between an ape and a human, Dart's theory) or an ape (Keith's theory). It is now considered an early hominid, but with a brain not much larger than that of a chimpanzee. A human brain is much larger. Artwork from New Discoveries relating to The Antiquity of Man (Sir Arthur Keith, 1931).
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