Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon skulls. The Neanderthal skull (left) was found at La Ferrassie, France, in 1909, and is thought to be around 70,000 years old. The other skull is Cro-Magnon 1, found as Les Eyzies, France, in 1868, and dated to 30,000 years ago. Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons cohabited in Europe between about 40,000 and 30-25,000 years ago, when the former died out. Neanderthals had occupied the region from as far back as 350,000 years ago. Cro-Magnons were anatomically similar to modern humans, and are their ancestors. It is not known for sure what caused the extinction of the Neanderthals, but competition with the advanced Cro-Magnons is unlikely to have helped their cause.
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