Fossil skull and bones of Neanderthal man Homo neanderthalensis found in 1908 in a cave at La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France. The femurs & vertebrae are deformed due to osteoarthritis. Formerly Neanderthal man was seen as a degenerate version of modern man; skeletal deformities were interpreted as a slouching gait. Further study showed that the deformities were the result of arthritis, not evolution & that Neanderthals were a sturdy & successful race. They were short & thick-set with a body form resembling modern cold-adapted people. Average brain size was over 1400cc. They lived as hunter gatherers, ranging across Europe from about 130,000-35,000 years ago.
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