Modern man and woman, artwork. Modern humans (homo sapiens sapiens) are characterised by the lighter build of their skeletons compared to earlier humans. Modern humans also have very large brains, housed within a reorganised skull. This has produced the 'modern' appearance of a high vaulted cranium with a flat, almost vertical forehead. Also, the ridging above the eye sockets is very reduced. There are two theories, known as the 'Multiregion Hypothesis' and the 'Out of Africa Hypothesis', concerning the origin of modern Homo sapiens. The oldest fossil evidence for modern humans found in Africa dates back 130,000 years.
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