Rejuvenation in acid rain-damaged forest, Poland

Rejuvenation in acid rain-damaged forest, Poland

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Caption: Acid rain: natural regeneration of young spruce trees in an acid rain-damaged forest in the Karkonoski National Park, south-west Poland. Located on the border with Czechoslovakia, the trees are subject to acid precipitation wind- blown from that country. In 1989 a highly-acidic pH of 1.7 was recorded on one occasion; pH 7 indicates a neutral value. Trees in the 1000-1250 metres altitude range appear especially vulnerable. Other factors which compound the damage include insects, drought and high winds. Of the 3,800 hectares that the Karkonoski Park occupies, 150 hectares have been severely affected.

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Keywords: acid rain, acid rain and, acid rain damage, acid rain dmge, acid rain forest, air pollution, atmospheric, environment, environmental, forestry, karkonoski nat. pk, pcea abies, poland, rejuvenation, spruce forest

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