Trees in conifer forest damaged by acid rain

Trees in conifer forest damaged by acid rain

E812/0175

Rights Managed

Caption

Acid rain damage to trees. A conifer forest with many trees damaged or killed by acid rain. Loss of leaves and stunted growth occurs as the trees undergo a "die back" effect. Pollution of nitrogen oxide from car exhausts and sulphur dioxide emitted by fossil fuel power stations and heavy industry create rain that is acid. Normal rain has a pH of 5.6; in parts of North America and Europe the average pH is now 4-4.5, resulting in deforestation and acidification of lakes. Trees, especially conifers, are particularly vulnerable to acid rain. Photographed on Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, USA.

Release details

Model release not required. Property release not required.

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