DNA manipulation. Computer artwork of a needle being inserted into a dividing cell against a background showing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA consists of two strands twisted into a helical shape, with bases (orange bars) projecting inwards. These bases pair up to form a code of genetic instructions. DNA manipulation (genetic engineering) involves cutting the molecule up and resplicing it to other fragments. Several uses for DNA manipulation might be shown here. Bacterial cells can be used to make drugs or vaccines. Crop plants can be made more disease resistant and livestock can be given different traits. Genetic diseases can be treated using gene therapy.
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