Genome research. Scientists use a pipette to load cDNA (complementary DNA) onto an alkaline gel for electrophoresis. The technique separates fragments of cDNA by size, for further analysis. It is part of DNA sequencing research at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA. Here scientists analyse the structure and function of human genes, and certain animal and plant genes for comparison. At TIGR, cDNA ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) are produced; these "tags" enable the reading of cDNA, lengths of copied genetic material identical to genes. Mapping human genes will enable the development of genetic therapies for inherited human diseases.
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