Human genome research. Female researcher loading an automated DNA sequencer at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI). The JGI is part of the international Human Genome Project (HUGO) that aims to map the whole human genome, the three billion base pairs that form the genetic code of human DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), by 2003. DNA fragments are copied using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) equipment and then sequenced to find the order of their bases. HUGO will allow the genetic cause of many diseases to be discovered. The JGI, founded in Walnut Creek, California, in 1997, is a collaboration between three of the US Department of Energy's National Laboratories.
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