DNA cloning in genetic research. Genetic cloning robot extracting bacteria colonies (black spots) that have been engineered to contain human DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) from a petri dish. Bacteria divide rapidly and produce many copies of themselves, making them ideal in cloning human DNA for sequencing. DNA sequencing determines the exact order of the four bases that make up genes, sections of DNA that encode how every cell in the body works. Sequencing DNA makes it possible to find the exact cause of a genetic disease. Photographed at the AFM (French Muscular Dystrophy Association), Evry, France.
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