Transgenic cotton plants. Professor G. Lashmi Sita tending transgenic cotton plants at Monsanto's research centre in Bangalore, India, in 2000. There are two main types of transgenic cotton available. One type, known as Bt cotton, has a gene inserted from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that expresses an insecticidal protein toxin. The toxin makes the plant resistant to bollworm and tobacco budworm. The other type, known as Roundup Ready cotton, has a gene that protects the plant against the herbicide Roundup, which is produced by Monsanto. Therefore the crop fields can be sprayed with the herbicide and only the weeds are affected. Some plant strains have both genes inserted.
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