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Gram-negative bacterial cell wall, artwork. This sectioned cell wall separates the interior of the cell (red, bottom) from the outside (black). The horizontal layers include both an external and an internal membrane, both containing transmembrane proteins (green). The membranes are separated by a thin peptidoglycan layer. The outer surface of the external membrane is often a lipopolysaccharide layer with lipids (yellow) in the membrane, and long saccharide side chains (red) extending out. This is termed a Gram-negative cell wall because it does not retain the Gram stain that helps identify microbial life. For a Gram-positive bacterial cell wall, see image G460/104.
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