Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was a French neurologist who is considered to be the founder of modern neurology. This illustration, published in 1887 in Revue Illustree, shows female patients in various states of mental disorder. Charcot studied hysteria from 1872. He thought he had identified a new disorder, hystero-epilepsy, where patients had episodes of convulsions, contortions and fainting. His student, Babinski, persuaded him that these symptoms were due to hysteric patients imitating epileptic patients on the same wards. Charcot founded the famous neurological clinic at the Salpetriere hospital, Paris, France, in 1882. One of his students was Sigmund Freud.
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