Karl von Linde, German refrigeration pioneer.

Karl von Linde, German refrigeration pioneer.

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Caption: Karl von Linde. Portrait of Karl von Linde (1842- 1934), German low-temperature chemist and refrigeration pioneer who liquefied gases on an industrial scale. Linde grew interested in low temperatures in the 1870s. In 1876 he successfully marketed an ammonia compressor refrigeration unit and produced a domestic version in 1877. These were more efficient than the coolers which had previously been available. In 1896 he devised a method in liquefying air by compression and expansion with intermediary cooling. This allowed liquid air to be mass-produced for the first time. In 1903 he invented a method of separating liquid oxygen from liquid air on a large scale.

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Keywords: air, ammonia cmprsr refrgrtr, chemist, invtr, karl, karl von, linde, liquefaction, liquid air, oxygen, pioneer, portraits, refrigeration, surname l, von linde

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