Lavoisier's list of chemical elements with his new names for them (left) and their old names (right), from his Elementary Treatise of Chemistry (1789). Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), the French chemist, is recognised as the founder of modern chemistry. His list included chemicals that would be shown not to be elements. Forms of energy: heat (calorique) and light (lumiere) are grouped with 3 gases: oxygen, nitrogen (azote) and hydrogen. Then 3 non-metals (sulphur, phosphorus and carbon) are followed by 3 compounds (radicals) of chlorine (muriatique), fluorine and boron. The list ends with 5 oxides of calcium, magnesium, barium, aluminium and silicon.
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