Egas Moniz, Portuguese neurologist

Egas Moniz, Portuguese neurologist

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Caption: Egas Moniz (1874-1955), Portuguese neurologist and politician. Moniz studied medicine, in Portugal and France. However, in 1903 he entered politics, serving as minister of foreign affairs and ambassador to Spain. He returned to neurology in 1911 and developed cerebral angiography, a technique that uses a contrast medium to show up abnormalities in the brain's blood vessels on X- rays. It was for his more controversial work, on prefrontal leucotomies (lobotomies), that he received the 1949 Nobel prize for medicine with Walter Hess. He developed a technique for lobotomies, severing the frontal lobes from the rest of the brain through holes in the skull, and advocated its use for all mental diseases.

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