Vera Rubin, US astronomer

Vera Rubin, US astronomer

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Caption: Vera Rubin (1928-2016), US astronomer. Here, Rubin is measuring spectra (ranges of light waves). She is most famous for her work on the motion of galaxies, stars and stellar gases. She demonstrated the uneven distribution of galaxies in 1954 and investigated spiral galaxies in the 1970s. This work led to her proposal of dark matter, the extremely dense substance believed to constitute most of the known universe. Photographed at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute for Science, Washington DC, USA.

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