Caption: Animation of ice melting into liquid water, and then turning into vapour. At the start, the ice exists in a regular hexagonal crystal lattice, with the hydrogen atoms (white) on each water molecule forming hydrogen bonds (blue lines) with an adjacent oxygen atom. This regular arrangement makes ice occupy a larger volume than liquid water. After a pulse of heat (red), the lattice breaks down, as the molecules gain enough energy to disrupt the hydrogen bonding, forming liquid water. After another pulse of heat, the molecules gain enough energy to leave the liquid state altogether, escaping as water vapour, a process called evaporation.

Release details: Model release not required. Property release not required.

Keywords: 20 seconds or greater, animated, animation, change, changing, chemistry, crystal, crystalline, density, education, educational, evaporating, evaporation, frozen, gas, h2o, heating, hydrogen bonding, ice, lattice, liquid, melt, melting, molecular, molecule, phase, physical, physics, science, solid, state, states, structure, vapour, warming, water

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Ice melting and evaporating

K001/0886 Rights Managed

Downloadable master

Duration: 00:00:21.21

Frame size: 1920x1080

Frame rate: 24

Audio: No

Format: QuickTime, Photo JPEG 100%, progressive scan, square pixels

File size: 957.6M


Capture format: QuickTime Animation

Codec: Photo - JPEG

Please contact Science Photo Library if you require the original, or other formats.


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