Bladder cancer cell. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a bladder cancer cell. Its several long cytoplasmic projections may enable it to be motile. Most bladder cancers arise in the bladder lining. They may spread inwards or through the bladder wall into nearby organs, lymph glands and bones. Smokers and workers in the dye and rubber industries are at increased risk of the disease. It is also more common in tropical areas where the parasitic infection schistosomiasis is prevalent. Symptoms include blood in the urine and bladder infections. Treatment involves excision of affected tissues, with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Magnification unknown.
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