Emphysema. Coloured 3-D computed tomography (CT) scan of the lower lungs, during advanced emphysema of the right lung (left). Emphysema is a disease in which the tiny lung air sacs (alveoli, blue) become enlarged and the alveoli walls become damaged. It is strongly associated with smoking. A large rounded area of severe damage (lower left) causes a reduced surface area for gaseous exchange and restricts oxygen uptake. This may cause bluish skin, breathlessness, and heart or respiratory failure. Treatment is with drugs and the cessation of smoking. For several CT scans of these lungs, see images M150/223-227.
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