Glaucoma. Ophthalmoscope view of the retina of an eye with glaucoma. An abnormally high intraocular pressure, the pressure within the eye, occurs in glaucoma. Here, glaucomatous cupping has caused vertical enlargement of the optic disc (at centre, yellow) and hooking of blood vessels as they cross the disc margin; the optic nerve may also show abnormality. Primary glaucoma exists in the absence of any other eye disease; secondary glaucoma is due to pre-existing eye disease that disrupts normal circulation of aqueous humour in the eye. Primary glaucoma occurs increasingly with age and is an important cause of blindness. Treat- ment is to medically reduce intraocular pressure.
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