False-colour intravenous pyelogram (IVP) showing presence of a kidney stone (calculus) in the right kidney (orange, left of image). An IVP visualizes the drainage of urine from the kidneys into the ureters & is obtained by taking X-ray films following the injection of an iodine-based, radio- opaque contrast medium that is excreted in urine. The presence of kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) can cause pain and blood in the urine, but may produce no symptoms. Kidney stones causing infection & obstruction in the flow of urine require removal by surgery or lithotripsy - a non- surgical means of crushing the stones using ultrasound shock waves.
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