Hydronephrosis. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through a human kidney, showing a renal tubule in hydronephrosis. The kidney contains tubules through which water and waste pass and where reabsorption occurs as urine is produced. At centre is the lumen of a renal tubule, surrounded by epithelial cells (green) with nuclei (pink). Due to hydro- nephrosis the basement membrane (brown) on which the epithelial cells rest is thickened. Hydronephrosis is a condition in which the kidney swells with urine due to a blockage in the urinary tract. This may severely damage the kidney and lead to kidney failure. Magnification: unknown.
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