Urine reflux. Coloured cystogram (X-ray) of the abdomen of a 14 month old with bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). VUR is the abnormal reflux of urine from the bladder (bottom) back into the ureters (white tubes), the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. The most common cause is a congenital fault with the valve that usually prevents this back-flow. The back-flow of urine introduces the normally sterile kidneys to infection and also increases the pressure within the kidneys, both of which can lead to kidney damage. Treatment is with antibiotics to prevent or treat infection. As the child grows the valve usually begins to function correctly, but where this doesn't occur, and in severe cases, surgical correction is necessary.
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