Kyphoscoliosis. Frontal X-ray image of the spine of a 35-year-old woman with kyphoscoliosis. This spine deformity consists of both lateral (side-to-side) curves (scoliosis) and dorsal (front-to-back) curves (kyphosis). Severe cases are usually treated with surgery to insert a metal support to keep the spine in a straight line. This patient has just had cardiac surgery, where a Starr-Edwards mechanical heart valve (centre right) was inserted to replace a defective valve. Stitches (white loops) are seen at upper centre.
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