Researching visual system for the blind. Blind boy (right) and a researcher testing the TVSS (Tactile Vision Substitution System). TVSS was first developed by Professor Paul Bach-Y-Rita in 1972, and modern versions have since been designed. Input from a video camera (on the boy's forehead) is converted into output to a vibro-tactile pad on the back (as here), or to an electro-tactile pad on the tongue. The pad is pixellated and vibrates, allowing the blind person to see by 'touch at a distance' (image seen on the screen, bottom left). This test assesses the ability to read written letters.
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