Robot surgery. Surgeon (Prof. Daniel Loisance) during minimally invasive surgery (MIS) on a patient's heart using da Vinci, a remotely-controlled surgical robot (right). The robot is controlled from a console (not seen) with a three-dimensional image of the operation site from an endoscope (flexible viewing instrument, output on monitor at left). The da Vinci system allows precise control of surgical tools through an incision just 1 centimetre wide. Da Vinci was designed by Intuitive Surgical Incorporated of California, USA. Photographed during a heart bypass operation at Henri Mondor Hospital, Creteil, France.
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