Virtual liver surgery. Three-dimensional virtual reality (VR) image of a human liver, simulated for use in virtual liver surgery. Blood vessels (blue, red, white) and the bile duct (yellow) are seen. This liver image can be rotated, and has internal anatomical structures of a real liver. A surgeon can operate a remote calliper surgical instrument to penetrate into liver blood vessels or biliary canals, and perform "real-time" surgery such as the removal of a tumour. This VR simulation will assist surgeons to plan and practice liver surgery after a patient has been scanned (MRI, ultrasound) and their liver reproduced on a computer screen. Photographed at IRCAD in Strasbourg, France.
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