Smallpox vaccination kit. Equipment used to vaccinate people against the Variola (smallpox) virus. The phial contains dried Vaccinia vaccine, which is obtained from the lymph fluid of calves that have been infected with the cowpox virus, a virus closely related to smallpox. The vaccine is reconstituted by the addition of a diluent, contained in the syringe. The vaccine is applied to the upper arm by repeatedly jabbing the skin with a bifurcated needle. Smallpox was globally eradicated in 1979 due to the effectiveness of vaccination. Despite this, a risk of re-introduction of smallpox exists due to the threat of bioterrorism.
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