Breast removal surgery. Historical anatomical artwork of breast removal surgery. At lower right a surgeon's hands are using a scalpel to slice open a woman's right breast. Another surgeon is holding open the wound and pressing his thumb to the patient's neck. The artwork dates from the 19th century, before the use of reliable anaesthetics during surgery. Such surgery might be to remove a cancerous growth from the breast. Artwork from Atlas of Anatomy, by Bourgery and Jacob. This book, which took over 20 years to complete, was published in France in 8 volumes from 1831 to 1854. It contained 726 colour plates covering both anatomy and surgical techniques.
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