Human heart. Computer-enhanced historical artwork of the healthy human heart, with its blood vessels and nerves. At lower centre is the heart with its surface coronary blood vessels; an atrium (yellow) is at centre left. Veins and arteries appear as cylindrical structures; the large vena cava veins are at upper and lower left. Branching blood vessels on either side of the heart supply the lungs. Autonomic nerves are seen in networks above the heart and these control involuntary functions of the heart and lungs. Special conduction mechanisms in the heart muscle maintain its rhythmic pumping action. Drawing by the celebrated Italian anatomist Paolo Mascagni (1755-1815).
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