Supernova. Computer artwork of a star exploding as a supernova. A supernova is the result of a massive star exhausting the hydrogen and helium that fuel its nuclear fires. It is the heat from these nuclear fusion processes that prevents the star collapsing under its own weight. Further nuclear fusion involving other elements is less efficient and destabilises the star. The core then collapses under its own weight. A rebounding shock wave from the super-dense core blows off the outer layers (as seen) at thousands of kilometres per second. These outer layers contain heavy elements that are needed to form planets and life on them. A supernova may briefly outshine an entire galaxy.
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