Flat, closed and open universes

Flat, closed and open universes

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Caption: Flat, closed and open universes. Artwork showing the geometrical curvatures of a 'flat' (left), 'closed' (centre) and 'open' (right) universe. The galaxies are shown on a curved grid, which represents the overall geometry of the universe. The universes have planar, spherical and saddle curvatures respectively. The curvature of a universe is determined by the amount and density of matter and energy. In an open universe, the amount of matter is insufficient to prevent the universe expanding forever. In a closed universe, there is enough matter to halt the expansion, followed by a contraction to a Big Crunch. In a flat universe, the amount of matter has a critical value between these two extremes.

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Keywords: 4-d, 4-dimensional, artwork, closed universe, computer artwork, cosmological, cosmology, curvature, curved, elliptic, flat, flat universe, four dimensional, galaxies, galaxy, geometrical, geometry, hyperbolic, hypersphere, illustration, open universe, physical, physics, planar, plane, saddle, shape, space, space time, space-time, spacetime, sphere, spherical, three, trio, universe

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