Priestley's electrical machine. View of Joseph Priestley's (1733-1804) electrical machine, from his book The History of Electricity (1767). The glass globe (upper right) was rotated by the handle against a fixed 'rubber' (such as fur) and the charge collected by wires (top right) sweeping the globe. The voltage was soon high enough to spark across the gap (upper left). Priestley is considered to be the founder of modern chemistry. He made many discoveries in chemistry, electricity and biology. He was considered to be a religious and political radical, and in 1794 he emigrated to the USA to satisfy his need for intellectual and spiritual freedom.
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