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CERN collider, 1970. Researcher standing next to equipment below a beam pipe (across top) for the Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR) collider at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory, located in Switzerland. The ISR was completed in 1971 and was the world's first proton collider. It received accelerated protons and stored them as circulating beams inside 2 pipes forming 300-metre-wide rings. The beams were collided where the pipes crossed. Head-on collisions are more efficient at creating new particles. The ISR, the third major CERN project and the first of several colliders, closed in 1984. Many key discoveries in particle physics have been made at CERN, which was founded in 1954.
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