Water boiling experiment. This experiment demonstrated the principle that paper and cardboard will not burn as long as the energy of a flame is being used to boil water instead. The upturned glass of water has a sheet of cardboard over it, held in place by external air pressure and surface tension. A candle flame is being used to heat the cardboard, which is not catching fire, but the water is boiling and escaping as steam from between the sides of the glass and the cardboard. Artwork from the eighth volume (second period of 1891) of the French popular science weekly 'La Science Illustree'.
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