Bernard de Vargas Machuca Spanish explore

Bernard de Vargas Machuca Spanish explore

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Credit: MIDDLE TEMPLE LIBRARY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption: Bernard de Vargas Machuca (1557-1622), Spanish explorer. 16th Century portrait of Bernard de Vargas Machuca from the cover page of his book 'Milicia y descripcion de las Indias' (Militia and Description of the Indies, 1599). This book is the first known manual of counterinsurgency, or anti-guerrilla warfare, and is a training manual for conquistadors. Vargas Machuca argued that many more Native American peoples remained to be conquered and converted to Roman Catholicism, however he consistently praised the resistance techniques and medicinal practices of the of indigenous people of the Americas.

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