Schiaparelli's Mars, historical artwork. Map of the planet Mars, drawn by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli in 1909, showing the southern polar cap (white, upper right). Schiaparelli saw many dark lines criss-crossing the planet and called them 'canali' (channels), which was mistranslated as 'canals'. Today it is known that these canali were merely optical illusions.
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