Hominin skull specimens. Sequence of fossil casts of some of the hominin skulls that developed during the evolution of early and modern human species. From left to right, arranged in chronological order, the skulls are: Australopithecus africanus (2-3 million years ago); Homo rudolfensis (2 million years ago); Homo erectus (1.3 to 1.8 million years ago); Homo heidelbergensis (600,000 to 400,000 years ago); Homo neanderthalensis (500,000 to 30,000 years ago); and Homo sapiens (from 200,000 years ago). The precise sequence of H. rudolfensis and H. erectus is uncertain.
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